As it was shown by researches a while ago, it is possible to infect a smartphone with a hacked adapter. There are things you can do to detect and remove malware from your phone. For starters, you could download an antivirus app. These 2 charger firewalls and malware scanners can also help:
LockedUSB Adapter: enables you to charge your gadgets safely on the go. It stops identity theft. Works with Lightning and Micro USB devices.
Skorpion Charger: Skorpion scans your smartphone for malware, viruses, and malicious rootkit while charging it.
We are surely going to see even more sophisticated smartphone security solutions in the future. For now, the above products can help protect you from identity theft.